**Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus**

a resolute translation

1 Iggle
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1.1 Iggle
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1.11 Iggle
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1.12 Iggle
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1.13 Iggle
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1.2 Iggle
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1.21 Iggle
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2 Iggle
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2.01 Iggle
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2.011 Iggle
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2.012 Iggle
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2.0121 Iggle
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2.0122 Iggle
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2.0123 Iggle
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2.01231 Iggle
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2.0124 Iggle
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2.013 Iggle
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2.0131 Iggle
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2.014 Iggle
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2.0141 Iggle
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2.02 Iggle
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2.0201 Iggle
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2.021 Iggle
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2.0211 Iggle
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2.0212 Iggle
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2.022 Iggle
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2.023 Iggle
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2.0231 Iggle
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2.023 Iggle
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2.0233 Iggle
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2.02331 Iggle
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2.024 Iggle
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2.025 Iggle
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2.0251 Iggle
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2.026 Iggle
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2.027 Iggle
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2.0271 Iggle
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2.0272 Iggle
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2.03 Iggle
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2.031 Iggle
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2.032 Iggle
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2.033 Iggle
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2.034 Iggle
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2.04 Iggle
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2.05 Iggle
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2.06 Iggle
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2.061 Iggle
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2.062 Iggle
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2.063 Iggle
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2.1 Iggle
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2.11 Iggle
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2.12 Iggle
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2.13 Iggle
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2.131 Iggle
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2.14 Iggle
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2.141 Iggle
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2.15 Iggle
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2.151 Iggle
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2.1511 Iggle
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2.1512 Iggle
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2.15121 Iggle
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2.1513 Iggle
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2.1514 Iggle
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2.1515 Iggle
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2.16 Iggle
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2.161 Iggle
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2.17 Iggle
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2.171 Iggle
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2.172 Iggle
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2.173 Iggle
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2.174 Iggle
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2.18 Iggle
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2.181 Iggle
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2.182 Iggle
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2.19 Iggle
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2.2 Iggle
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2.201 Iggle
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2.202 Iggle
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2.203 Iggle
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2.21 Iggle
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2.22 Iggle
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2.221 Iggle
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2.222 Iggle
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2.223 Iggle
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2.224 Iggle
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2.225 Iggle
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3 Iggle
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3.001 Iggle
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3.01 Iggle
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3.02 Iggle
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3.03 Iggle
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3.031 Iggle
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3.032 Iggle
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3.0321 Iggle
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3.04 Iggle
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3.05 Iggle
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3.1 Iggle
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3.11 Iggle
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3.12 Iggle
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3.13 Iggle
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3.14 Iggle
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3.141 Iggle
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3.142 Iggle
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3.143 Iggle
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3.1431 Iggle
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3.1432 Iggle
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3.144 Iggle
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3.2 Iggle
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3.201 Iggle
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3.202 Iggle
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3.203 Iggle
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3.21 Iggle
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3.22 Iggle
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3.221 Iggle
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3.23 Iggle
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3.24 Iggle
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3.25 Iggle
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3.251 Iggle
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3.26 Iggle
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3.261 Iggle
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3.262 Iggle
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3.263 Iggle
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3.3 Iggle
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3.31 Iggle
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3.311 Iggle
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3.312 Iggle
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3.313 Iggle
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3.314 Iggle
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3.315 Iggle
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3.316 Iggle
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3.317 Iggle
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3.318 Iggle
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3.32 Iggle
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3.321 Iggle
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3.322 Iggle
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3.323 Iggle
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3.324 Iggle
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3.325 Iggle
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3.326 Iggle
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3.327 Iggle
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3.328 Iggle
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3.33 Iggle
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3.331 Iggle
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3.332 Iggle
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3.333 Iggle
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3.334 Iggle
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3.34 Iggle
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3.341 Iggle
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3.3411 Iggle
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3.342 Iggle
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3.3421 Iggle
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3.343 Iggle
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3.344 Iggle
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3.3441 Iggle
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3.3442 Iggle
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3.4 Iggle
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3.41 Iggle
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3.411 Iggle
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3.42 Iggle
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3.5 Iggle
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4 Iggle
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4.002 Iggle
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4.003 Iggle
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4.0031 Iggle
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4.01 Iggle
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4.011 Iggle
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4.012 Iggle
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4.013 Iggle
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4.014 Iggle
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4.0141 Iggle
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4.015 Iggle
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4.016 Iggle
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4.02 Iggle
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4.021 Iggle
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4.022 Iggle
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4.023 Iggle
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4.024 Iggle
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4.025 Iggle
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4.026 Iggle
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4.027 Iggle
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4.03 Iggle
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4.031 Iggle
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4.0311 Iggle
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4.0312 Iggle
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4.032 Iggle
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4.04 Iggle
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4.041 Iggle
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4.0411 Iggle
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4.0412 Iggle
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4.05 Iggle
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4.06 Iggle
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4.061 Iggle
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4.062 Iggle
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4.0621 Iggle
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4.063 Iggle
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4.064 Iggle
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4.0641 Iggle
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4.1 Iggle
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4.11 Iggle
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4.111 Iggle
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4.112 Iggle
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4.1121 Iggle
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4.1122 Iggle
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4.113 Iggle
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4.114 Iggle
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4.115 Iggle
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4.116 Iggle
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4.12 Iggle
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4.121 Iggle
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4.1211 Iggle
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4.1212 Iggle
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4.1213 Iggle
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4.122 Iggle
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4.1221 Iggle
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4.123 Iggle
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4.124 Iggle
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4.1241 Iggle
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4.125 Iggle
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4.1251 Iggle
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4.1252 Iggle
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4.126 We
can now talk about formal concepts, in the same sense that we speak
of formal properties.

(I
introduce this expression in order to exhibit the source of confusion
between formal concepts and concepts proper, which pervades the whole
of traditional logic.)

When
something falls under a formal concept as one of its objects, this
cannot be expressed by means of a proposition. Instead it is shown in
the very sign for this object. (A name shows that it signifies an
object, a sign for a number that it signifies a number, etc.)

Formal
concepts cannot, in fact, be represented by means of a function, as
concepts proper can.

For
their characteristics, formal properties, are not expressed by means
of functions.

The
expression for a formal property is a feature of certain symbols.

So
the sign for the characteristics of a formal concept is a distinctive
feature of all symbols whose meanings fall under the concept.

So
the expression for a formal concept is a propositional variable in
which this distinctive feature alone is constant.

4.127 The
propositional variable signifies the formal concept, and its values
signify the objects that fall under the concept.

4.1271 Every
variable is the sign for a formal concept.

For
every variable represents a constant form that all its values
possess, and this can be regarded as a formal property of those
values.

4.1272 Thus
the variable name 'x' is the proper sign for the pseudo-concept

*object*.
Wherever
the word 'object' ('thing', etc.) is correctly used, it is expressed
in conceptual notation by a variable name.

For
example, in the proposition 'There are 2 objects which...”, it is
expressed by '(Ǝ
x, y)...'.

Wherever
it is used in a different way, that is as a proper concept-word,
nonsensical pseudo-propositions are the result.

So
one cannot say, for example, 'There are objects', as one might say,
'There are books'. And it is just as impossible to say, 'There are
100 objects', or 'There are

**א**(o) objects'.
And
it is nonsensical to speak of the

*total number of objects*.
The
same applies to the words 'complex', 'fact', 'function', 'number',
etc.

They
all signify formal concepts, and are represented in conceptual
notation by variables, not by functions or classes (as Frege and
Russell believed).

'1
is a number', 'There is only one zero', and all similar expressions
are nonsensical.

(It
is just as nonsensical to say, 'There is only one 1', as it would be
to say, '2+2 at 3 o'clock equals 4'.)

4.12721 Iggle
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4.1273 Iggle
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4.1274 Iggle
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4.128 Iggle
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4.2 Iggle
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4.21 Iggle
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4.211 Iggle
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4.22 Iggle
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4.221 Iggle
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4.2211 Iggle
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4.23 Iggle
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4.24 Iggle
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4.241 Iggle
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4.242 Iggle
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4.243 Iggle
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4.25 Iggle
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4.26 Iggle
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4.27 Iggle
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4.28 Iggle
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4.3 Iggle
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4.31 Iggle
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4.4 Iggle
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4.41 Iggle
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4.411 Iggle
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4.42 Iggle
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4.43 Iggle
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4.431 Iggle
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4.44 Iggle
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4.441 Iggle
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4.442 Iggle
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4.45 Iggle
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4.46 Iggle
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4.461 Iggle
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4.4611 Iggle
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4.462 Iggle
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4.463 Iggle
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4.464 Iggle
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4.465 Iggle
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4.466 Iggle
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4.4661 Iggle
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4.5 Iggle
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4.51 Iggle
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4.52 Iggle
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4.53 Iggle
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5 Iggle
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5.01 Iggle
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5.02 Iggle
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5.1 Iggle
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5.101 Iggle
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5.11 Iggle
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5.12 Iggle
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5.121 Iggle
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5.122 Iggle
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5.123 Iggle
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5.124 Iggle
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5.1241 Iggle
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5.13 Iggle
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5.131 Iggle
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5.1311 Iggle
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5.132 Iggle
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5.133 Iggle
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5.134 Iggle
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5.135 Iggle
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5.136 Iggle
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5.1361 Iggle
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5.1362 Iggle
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5.1363 Iggle
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5.14 Iggle
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5.141 Iggle
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5.142 Iggle
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5.143 Iggle
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5.15 Iggle
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5.151 Iggle
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5.1511 Iggle
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5.152 Iggle
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5.153 Iggle
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5.154 Iggle
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5.155 Iggle
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5.156 Iggle
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5.2 Iggle
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5.21 Iggle
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5.22 Iggle
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5.23 Iggle
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5.231 Iggle
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5.232 Iggle
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5.233 Iggle
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5.234 Iggle
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5.2341 Iggle
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5.24 Iggle
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5.241 Iggle
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5.242 Iggle
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5.25 Iggle
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5.251 Iggle
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5.252 Iggle
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5.2521 Iggle
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5.2522 Iggle
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5.2523 Iggle
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5.253 Iggle
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5.254 Iggle
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5.3 Iggle
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5.31 Iggle
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5.32 Iggle
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5.4 Iggle
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5.41 Iggle
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5.42 Iggle
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5.43 Iggle
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5.44 Iggle
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5.441 Iggle
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5.442 Iggle
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5.45 Iggle
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5.451 Iggle
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5.452 Iggle
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5.453 Iggle
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5.454 Iggle
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5.4541 Iggle
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5.46 Iggle
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5.461 Iggle
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5.4611 Iggle
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5.47 Iggle
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5.471 Iggle
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5.4711 Iggle
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5.472 Iggle
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5.473 Logic
must look after itself.

If
a sign is

*possible*, then it is also capable of signifying. Whatever is possible in logic is also permitted. (The reason why 'Socrates is identical' means nothing is that there is no property called 'identical'. The proposition is nonsensical because we have failed to make an arbitrary determination, and not because the symbol, in itself, would be illegitimate.)
In
a certain sense, we cannot make mistakes in logic.

5.4731 Iggle
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5.4732 Iggle
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5.47321 Iggle
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5.4733 Frege
says that any legitimately constructed proposition must have a sense.
And I say that any possible proposition is legitimately constructed,
and, if it has no sense, that can only be because we have failed to
give a

*meaning*to some of its constituents.
(Even
if we think we have done so.)

Thus
the reason why 'Socrates is identical' says nothing is that we have
not given

*any adjectival*meaning to the word 'identical'. For when it appears as a sign for identity, it symbolizes in an entirely different way – the signifying relation is a different one – therefore the symbols also are entirely different in the two cases: the two symbols have only the sign in common, and that is an accident.
5.474 Iggle
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5.475 Iggle
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5.476 Iggle
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5.5 Iggle
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5.501 Iggle
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5.502 Iggle
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5.503 Iggle
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5.51 Iggle
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5.511 Iggle
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5.512 Iggle
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5.513 Iggle
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5.514 Iggle
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5.515 Iggle
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5.5151 Iggle
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5.52 Iggle
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5.521 Iggle
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5.522 Iggle
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5.523 Iggle
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5.524 Iggle
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5.525 Iggle
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5.526 Iggle
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5.5261 Iggle
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5.5262 Iggle
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5.53 Iggle
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5.5301 Iggle
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5.5302 Iggle
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5.5303 Iggle
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5.531 Iggle
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5.532 Iggle
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5.5321 Iggle
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5.533 Iggle
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5.534 Iggle
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5.535 Iggle
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5.5351 Iggle
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5.5352 Iggle
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5.54 Iggle
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5.541 Iggle
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5.542 Iggle
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5.5421 Iggle
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5.5422 Iggle
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5.5423 Iggle
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5.55 Iggle
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5.551 Iggle
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5.552 Iggle
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5.5521 Iggle
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5.553 Iggle
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5.554 Iggle
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5.5541 Iggle
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5.5542 Iggle
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5.555 Iggle
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5.556 Iggle
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5.5561 Iggle
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5.5562 Iggle
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5.5563 Iggle
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5.557 Iggle
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5.5571 Iggle
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5.6 Iggle
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5.61 Iggle
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5.62 Iggle
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5.621 Iggle
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5.63 Iggle
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5.631 Iggle
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5.632 Iggle
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5.633 Iggle
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5.6331 Iggle
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5.634 Iggle
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5.64 Iggle
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5.641 Iggle
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6 Iggle
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6.001 Iggle
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6.002 Iggle
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6.01 Iggle
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6.02 Iggle
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6.021 Iggle
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6.022 Iggle
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6.03 Iggle
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6.031 Iggle
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6.1 Iggle
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6.11 Iggle
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6.111 Iggle
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6.112 Iggle
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6.113 Iggle
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6.12 Iggle
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6.1201 Iggle
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6.1202 Iggle
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6.1203 Iggle
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6.121 Iggle
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6.122 Iggle
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6.1221 Iggle
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6.1222 Iggle
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6.1223 Iggle
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6.1224 Iggle
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6.123 Iggle
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6.1231 Iggle
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6.1232 Iggle
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6.1233 Iggle
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6.124 Iggle
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6.125 Iggle
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6.1251 Iggle
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6.126 Iggle
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6.1261 Iggle
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6.1262 Iggle
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6.1263 Iggle
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6.1264 Iggle
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6.1265 Iggle
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6.127 Iggle
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6.1271 Iggle
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6.13 Iggle
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6.2 Iggle
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6.21 Iggle
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6.211 Iggle
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6.22 Iggle
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6.23 Iggle
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6.231 Iggle
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6.232 Iggle
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6.2321 Iggle
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6.2322 Iggle
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6.2323 Iggle
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6.233 Iggle
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6.2331 Iggle
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6.234 Iggle
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6.2341 Iggle
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6.24 Iggle
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6.241 Iggle
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6.3 Iggle
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6.31 Iggle
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6.32 Iggle
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6.321 Iggle
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6.3211 Iggle
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6.33 Iggle
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6.34 Iggle
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6.341 Iggle
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6.342 Iggle
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6.343 Iggle
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6.3431 Iggle
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6.3432 Iggle
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6.35 Iggle
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6.36 Iggle
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6.361 Iggle
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6.3611 Iggle
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6.36111 Iggle
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6.362 Iggle
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6.363 Iggle
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6.3631 Iggle
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6.36311 Iggle
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6.37 Iggle
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6.371 Iggle
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6.372 Iggle
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6.373 Iggle
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6.374 Iggle
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6.375 Iggle
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6.3751 Iggle
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6.4 Iggle
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6.41 Iggle
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6.42 Iggle
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6.421 Iggle
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6.422 Iggle
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6.423 Iggle
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6.43 Iggle
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6.431 Iggle
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6.4311 Iggle
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6.4312 Iggle
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6.432 Iggle
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6.4321 Iggle
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6.44 Iggle
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6.45 Iggle
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6.5 Iggle
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6.51 Iggle
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6.52 Iggle
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6.521 Iggle
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6.522 Iggle
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6.53 Iggle
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6.54 My
propositions serve as elucidations in the following way: anyone who
understands me eventually recognizes them as nonsensical, when he has
used them – as steps – to climb up beyond them. (He must, so to
speak, throw away the ladder after he has climbed up it.)

He
must transcend these propositions, and then he will see the world
aright.

7 Iggle
piggle.

_{}

^{}

Hilarious.

ReplyDelete:) I was feeling mischievous, and it was a welcome break from hammering away at Wittgenstein and bloody rules (yet again).

ReplyDeleteThis comment has been removed by the author.

ReplyDeleteHi Philip - my name is Kavian, and I'm contacting you for two reasons. 1) Your wonderful blog 2) An interesting collaboration

ReplyDelete1)

Being a huge Wittgenstein-admirer myself, I came accross your terrific blog on the man today. Not only was I struck by the quality and insight of your writing, but also, when I read your section "Why I'm writing this blog", how much I could relate to you personal attitudes and experiences of reading PI and philosophy at large.

2) This brings me to my second purpose with this message: About a month ago I started a Youtube channel where I take the viewer through PI paragraph by paragraph. One video for every paragraph. I'll provide a link below. There's a lot of work and time that goes into them because of the script and visuals are done by me. That's why I wanted to ask you if you would be interested in writing the script for an episode? Based on what I've read on your blog, I'm sure you'd be a terrific match. Link: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOyouUKOXFI5uK2DyzAomPw/videos?view_as=subscriber

If this sounds interesting to you, do get in touch 🙂 Best, Kavian

kaviankasper@gmail.com

ReplyDeleteHi Kavian - many thanks for your comments. The YouTube project is a very good idea, I think, and I hope it goes well. I'll certainly give it a look. At the moment I am working on an exegesis of #136-142 because I've come to feel that this series of remarks is far more important than I'd previously realized. Perhaps some of that might be useful for your project?

ReplyDeleteAnyway, I'll take a look at your channel and get back to you.

All the best,

Philip

Thanks for your reply, Philip!

ReplyDeleteHow very interesting that you’re diving deep into those paragraphs. I remember from my course outline from university that most of those were marked as highly important paragraphs; methods of projection and all. I’d be very happy to send you that outline if you’re interested - it contains a list of all the (in my lecturer’s opinion) important paragraphs + recommended secondary literature.

As you might see from the videos, I’m doing a chronological approach to PI, so it’ll be a long time until I can draw on your exegesis I’m afraid. But thanks for offering!

I’m very happy to have gotten in touch with another Wittgenstein enthusiast, and look forward to hearing from you. Would be great if you replied to my email address above!

Best,

Kavian